Topic 05

Topic 05

Topic :-  UN Reforms

Syllabus:– Effect of Policies and Politics of Developed and Developing Countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora

  1. What are the functions of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC)? Why is there a consistent demand for reforms and expansion of UNSC? (150 words, 10 marks)

§  Introduction:- brief introduction regarding UN and UNSC.

·         Body:–  Describe the characteristics of the UNSC, Mention Changes and reforms needed in the UNSC, Explain the necessity of reforms.

§  Conclusion:- Conclude by mentioning how UNSC reforms are important to present period.




The UNSC is one of the Principal Organizations of the United Nations. It was formed in 1945 with the main aim of ensure peace and security and to prevent a World War II like situation in future.


  1. To ensure peace and security the UNSC investigates any dispute which may lead to international friction, regulates armament, conducts peace keeping operations, imposes international sanctions and authorize military actions.
  2. It is the only UN organ which has the powers to take binding decisions.
  3. Other crucial functions of UNSC includes:
    • Recommending admission of new members to UN.
    • Recommend the General Assembly to appoint the Secretary General.
    • Together with General Assembly elect the Judges of International Court of Justice.

Over the years, it has been seen that UNSC has not been able to play its role effectively. It is because UNSC is.

  1. Undemocratic – As P-5 countries have the power to block any decision.
  2. Anachronistic – The most important countries of 1940s are no more the most important – be it in terms of military power, economy, or global influence. So, UNSC membership should represent today’s scenario.
  3. Inequitable Geographical distribution – Regions like Africa, South Asia are meagrely represented at UNSC whereas Europe (especially Western Europe) is over represented.
  4. P-5 countries are themselves weapon exporting – thus there is a conflict of interest in their role at UNSC and their economy.
  5. P-5 countries are themselves involved in a number of conflicts Thus, there has been a consistent demand for UNSC reforms. But reforms have been elusive because there is a lack of consensus on what reforms should take place among different countries.

Further, UNSC reform requires support of 2/3rd members of UNGA and all P-5 members of UNSC, which is difficult to achieve.

Conclusion/Way forward

The present Inter-governmental negotiation (IGN) has continued for more than a decade without any useful outcome. It’s high time now that a new framework for negotiations should come which would be more democratic and inclusive. In the current circumstances, it has become crucial for the UNSC to reform itself and uphold its legitimacy and representatives in the world.



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