Topic 06

Topic 06

Topic :- Need & Benefits of EIA

Syllabus:– Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.

What is Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA)? Briefly mention the history, need, and objectives of the Environmental impact assessment? (150 words, 10 marks)


§  Introduction:-  Briefly explain environmental impact assessment (EIA).

§  Body:–  Describe the history, need, and objectives  of Environmental impact assessment

§  Conclusion:- conclude by mentioning the potential and importance of EIA.




Environment impact assessment (EIA)is a process under the Environment Protection Act, 1986 which prevents Industrial and Infrastructure Projects from being approved without proper oversight. This process ensures that every project should go through the EIA for obtaining prior environmental clearance.



History and evolution of EIA

  • EIA is termed as one of the best policy innovations in the 1900s. The main aim of EIA is to conserve the environment and bring out the best combination of economic and environmental costs and benefits.
  • The birth of EIA is dated back to the 1970s. In 1969, The USA had brought its first National Environment Policy Act (NEPA) 1969.
  • The EIA was initially practised by developed nations but slowly it was also introduced in developing nations including India.
  • Worldwide, EIA is now practised in more than 130 countries. By the mid-1990s, some 110 countries applied EIA as a major environmental policy.
  • Environmental impact assessment aims to foresee potential environmental problems that would happen out of a proposed development plan.


Need of Environmental impact Assessment

  • Environment impact assessment( EIA) covers projects such as mining of coal or other minerals, infrastructure development, thermal, nuclear, and hydropower projects, real estate, and Industrial projects.
  • These projects are assessed based on their potential impact on the environment. Based on the assessments, They are granted or denied environmental clearance by a panel of experts.


  • Developmental projects like nuclear power and related projects, river valley projects, ports, harbors, airports, petroleum refineries, chemical fertilizer industries, petrochemical Complexes, drugs and pharmaceuticals Industries, hydrocyanic acid, and its derivatives industry, thermal power plant, coal mining projects, Chlor alkali-industry, electroplating, Cement, tourism project between two hundred metres and 500metre of high Water Line, etc needs Environment impact assessment and approval.

Objectives of Environmental Impact Assessment

  • Identifying, predicting, and evaluating economic, environmental, and social impacts of development activities.
  • Providing information on the environmental consequences for decision making.
  • Promoting environmentally sound and suitable development by identifying appropriate alternatives and mitigation measures.

The EIA process in India is divided into the following phases.


Environmental impact assessment(EIA) is necessary for the coexistence of Environmental Protection and sustainable development.  EIA  can be considered as a tool to harmonise developmental activities with environmental conservation.




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