Topic 09

Topic 09

Topic:- Mechanisms, Laws, Institutions

Syllabus: – Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections of the population by the Centre and States and the Performance of these Schemes; Mechanisms, Laws, Institutions and Bodies constituted for the Protection and Betterment of these Vulnerable Sections

India Does not need newer or stronger laws, but effective implementation of existing ones. Discuss (250 words, 15 marks)


▪   Introduction:-. Explain ‘implementation’, need for it and situation in India

▪   Body:– Explain the various Problems in Policy Implementation and give suggestions to address them

▪   Conclusion:-   Stress the need for implementation.



  • Implementation is the heart of administration as it consists of carrying out of basic policy decisions, i.e, the process of putting into effect or carrying out an authoritative decision of Government.
  • In the policy cycle, it is critical to the successful fulfilment of policy objectives. But implementation is not automatic. The implementation phase is faced with numerous problems. Effective implementation requires a chain of command, and the capacity to coordinate and control; often there are shortfalls in this exercise, more so in a developing country like India.
  • In India there has been a dramatic rise in expenditure on programmes of social inclusion in the last five years but this is accompanied by growing complaints about implementation. The weaker sections of the society, for whom these schemes are primarily intended, are often not able to benefit because they are not sufficiently empowered to access the benefits due to them.

Problems in Policy Implementation in India

  1. Conceptual Problems : The conceptual problems may be related to policy design and policy analysis. For example, the National Health Policy(1983)was adopted without examining alternative policy options. India’s population policy (2000) lacks an adequate policy design.
  2. Political Problems : Political problems in the implementation of public policies are grave and complex and hamper effective implementation. The major factors for these are : Centralised Policy Process, Unionisation of Bureaucracy and Interest Group
    • Uniformity of schemes all over the country, without sufficient delegation to states to change the schemes to suit local conditions, leads to a situation where the states become indifferent to its implementation
    • states are ruled by a political party different from that at the Centre see no political advantage in successful implementation of many schemes
  3. Administrative Problems : The major factors for these are :
    • Lack of adequate instistitutional capacity
    • Lack of ppersonnel and financial resources
    • Pressure of time
    • Lack of Administrative Will and Motivation
    • Lack of Coordination and Cooperation
    • Short tenure of officials
  4. Lack of public involvement:
    Public involvement in policy implementation programmes such as education, health, population control, pollution control, forest conservation, etc. puts tremendous pressure on administrative staff to produce results.


Dealing with problems in implementation

  • Unambiguous demarcation of responsibilities
  • Frequent brainstorming sessions to anticipate and take formal note of likely challenges and agreeing upon solutions.
  • Ensuring and authorizing a largely freehand with matching resources, and the ability to make on-the-spot decisions.
  • The evergreen strategy to make the implementation of a near-perfect process is to build in a vigilant monitoring and evaluation mechanism.
  • A dynamic monitoring mechanism makes use of technology, which today is being built into various flagship programs initiated by the present government.

To Achieve Implementations

  • Engaging stakeholders and implementers, through various methodologies, is fast emerging as an effective strategy.
  • To set up an autonomous Monitoring Trust, comprise of core technical, administrative, and legal members, along with stakeholders and social activists, that can act as an integral part of all important public policies and programs.
  • Sharing information and progress through dashboards and other technology tools. For eg., inviting suggestions through IT portals like MyGov democratize and enrich both policy formulation and execution.
  • Good governance helps create an environment in which sustained economic growth becomes achievable. Conditions of good governance allow citizens to maximize their returns on investment.


  • India needs to work on the implementation and reforms processes in a wider manner, with the primary aim of attaining fast-paced development and effective delivery of the intended public benefits.
  • The first requirement would be a capable implementing machine — or what has been called the “perfect administration”, driven by passionate team leaders – led by political leadership both at the national and the state level. The guiding urge should be to complete the task before schedule.
  • Good governance must be demanded by citizens and nourished explicitly and consciously by the nation state. It is, therefore, necessary that the citizens are allowed to participate freely, openly and fully in the political process.

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