Topic 01

Topic 01

Topic 01:- Climatology

Syllabus:– Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone, etc., geographical features and their location changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

  1. According to climate experts, there are many factors crucial for the decline of the rainfall pattern in Cherrapunji other than climate change. Elucidate? (150 words, 10 Marks)

•  Introduction:Briefly mention about Cherrapunji and its feature.

•  Body: Keyword ( Elucidate – give a brief description (word limit is 150; so brief explanation) about the factors affecting rainfall patterns in  Cherrapunji and effects and its impacts)

•  Conclusion:- Conclude with the importance of government initiatives for the sustainability of greenery in the northeast region.



Cherrapunji or Sohra is a small town located in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, renowned for its rainfall. It falls directly on the path of the Southwest Monsoon. The presence of funnel valleys in the region creates high orographic rainfall. 


But recent times, climate experts observed a decreasing trend of rainfall at Cherrapunji.

  • Mawsynram, another town in Meghalaya, recently surpassed Cherrapunji in rainfall pattern.
  • In addition to climate change, there are a few other factors that contribute to this decline in rainfall:-
  • Natural factors
  • Rising the temperature in the Indian Ocean.
  • Solar energy absorbed and emitted by the atmosphere into space is declining.
  • Monsoons are irregular due to the effects of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation.
  • Due to Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) – Ocean surface temperature in the sub-tropical Pacific Ocean decreases as rainfall varies over a period that lasts for decades.
  • Increased snowfall in the Eurasian region also impacts monsoon in the entire Northeast.
  • Anthropogenic factors
  • Reduction in the natural vegetation and cropland area.
  • Introduced new cultivation techniques instead of Jhum cultivation (the traditional one).
  • This changing rainfall pattern, especially during the monsoon season, affects:-
  • Flow of rivers
  • Extent of snow cover
  • Health of mountain springs
  • Which in turn have an impact on:-
  • livelihoods, especially agriculture and fishing activities,
  • Fauna and flora of the region.


The northeast of India is rich in vegetation and includes 18  biodiversity hotspots in the world, even small changes can adversely affect the ecosystem. National Action Plan on Climate Change creates awareness about climate change and its measures to tackle it. The effective implementation of stringent rules will help to mitigate environmental issues in the future.


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