Topic 03

Topic 03

Topic:  Modern India

Syllabus:-Beginning of Mass Nationalism (1919-1939)- Rowlatt Act, Satyagrah and Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

The Jallianwala bagh massacre catalysed the Indian independence movement and gave it a new shape and momentum. Briefly illustrate the statement?


§  Introduction:- Need to give a brief account of the Jallianwala bagh massacre.

§  Body:–  Keyword (Illustrate’- short-term and long-term effects of the event in the Indian freedom struggle. Explain How the Jallianwala bagh massacre led to the independence of India in due course. Highlight how the event turned the course of the Indian national movement.)

§  Conclusion: – Conclude by adding the relevance of the Jallianwala bagh massacre.



The Jallianwala Bagh massacre occurred in 1919 in which several hundreds of people gathered in jallianwala bagh for a peaceful protest during the time of Baisaskhi festival.  They were killed or injured as a result of indiscriminate firing by the colonial forces without any warning under the command of General Dyer was the symbol of British oppression and injustice towards Indians. The conduct British during this event and after made large changes in the course of Indian freedom struggle.


  • The changes in the Indian freedom movement after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre can be divided into short-term effects and long-term effects based on the duration of impacts.


  1. It led to widespread protests from various parties in India and around the world. Great poet Rabindranath Tagore renounced his Knight Hood in protest and Winston Churchill described the event as monstrous.
  2. This event gave the nationalists a clear picture of how the British people considered the life of Indian people and the evil nature of their rule. The only punishment that Dyer, who was lauded for his actions by some in Britain but criticised by the others, had to face was being removed from his post and denied promotion. This example shows the true nature of uncivilized British.
  3. It led to the growth of anger and hate against the British people in the minds of the common masses and led them to involve in more mass protests against the British. This was evident during future protests like the Non-cooperation movement and Khilafat movement.
  4. This event erased the last hopes of Indian intelligentsia that British rule will give as the freedom or dominion status in due course. The growth and development of various welfare organisations, indigenous establishments, working-class unions and peasant organisation under the guidance of the intelligentsia class in large numbers in different parts of the nation after this can be cited as the perfect example.
  5. Growth of organised militant nationalism and Revolutionary out fits was direct expression of the reaction of Indian people. Establishment of Bharat Naujawan sabha in Lahore by Bhagat singh and formation of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) after this is the best example for this.
  6. This event gives rise to feeling of insecurity in all class of the people including middle class, urban class, rural people and peasants. The Participation of massive number of people during the future agitations including women, peasants and working class is due to this.
  7. After the occurrence of Jallian wala bagh, the bondage of Indian people grows in larger amount under the guidance of Gandhi. The unity and participation of people in Non-cooperation movement and constructive programmes are good examples.
  8. Non- cooperation movement was become the first movement India After this event. It was witnessed by the active participation of all classes of people without any difference, particularly common people and peasants for the first time.


  1. Indian nationalist leaders actively demanded the freedom of India after the occurrence of this event. The declaration of poorna swaraj and swaraj party formation should see under the backdrop this.
  2. Mass gatherings and protests against the British were become common after this due to unity in the Peoples all over India. Civil Disobedience movement, Salt satyagraha, Agitation against Simon commission are perfect examples.
  3. After Jallian wala bagh massacre British policy of divide and rule has become ineffective to large extent.
  4. Though the different groups have emerged with different demands in the course of the freedom struggle, they had a common opinion against the exploitative and oppressive rule of the British. The remarks of various groups like the Muslim League and Hindu Maha sabha during protests and agitations clearly underlines this argument.
  5. This event marked rapid change in the demands of Indians and united the whole part of India against British rule.
  6. This event can be considered as the beginning of the end of British rule in India.


Still, the Jallian wala bagh massacre is considered a deep wound done by the British in the soul of India. Many unarmed Indians martyred during the event give Indians not only a chance to arise against the British but also showed the evil face of British rule. This event can be marked as a turning point in the Indian freedom struggle because it give firm determination to all classes of Indian people to fight for their freedom.


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